DP08 deployed an e-mobility as a service (eMaaS) platform, which incorporates Electric Vehicles (EVs), Electric Bikes (E-bikes) and public transport. New technologies to enable cost and energy efficient smart charging have been implemented and are connected with a communication and trading platform. This will encourage the use of EVs and E-bikes and demonstrate the potential for trading between EVs, buildings and the grid, and incorporating charge/discharge connection points.
Global energy use has two major vectors in (i) buildings, which have approx. 40% of total primary energy demand and (ii) transportation, which account for approx. 28% of total primary energy demand. With respect to transportation, the anticipated number of Electric Vehicles (EVs) are expected to be more than 90% of all cars by 2050. Integration of eMobility poses new challenges in the movement towards MaaS in general. When using EVs as “batteries” it becomes important to ensure that the availability of the vehicles is kept to a satisfactory level for the mobility users. A large number of EVs require intensive charging, but can also participate in a distributed positive energy block (DPEB) by returning energy that is assumed not to be needed, thereby reducing that EVs’ range temporarily. Such returned energy from EVs can be used to “top up” the DPEBs energy needs.
By integrating modern distributed ledger technology-based/fee-less microtransactions into vehicles or chargers, it is possible to transfer any amount of energy, while at the same time ensuring secure payments from machine to machine (e.g. from vehicle to DPEB). As such, V2B can be a means for peak shaving, as an emergency backup for a building, and for grid load balancing.